Common Skin Disorders


Skin disorders differ greatly in symptoms and severity. They can be temporary or permanent and may be painless or painful. Some have situational causes, while others may be genetic. Some skin conditions are minor, and others can be life-threatening. While most skin disorders are minor, others can indicate a more serious issue.


Acne is usually associated with hormonal fluctuations experienced during your teenage years, but adults can experience acne too.

  • Commonly located on the face, neck, shoulders, chest, and upper back.
  • Breakouts on the skin composed of blackheads, whiteheads, pimples,    deep, painful cysts and nodules.
  • May leave scars or darken the skin if untreated.
Causes of acne
  • Bacteria.
  • Hormones.
  • Dead skin cells.
  • Ingrown hairs.
Cold Sore

Cold sores are caused by the herpes simplex virus. There are two types of herpes simplex virus. The herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV-1) usually causes cold sores, and the herpes simplex type 2 virus (HSV-2) usually causes genital herpes.

  • Red, painful, fluid-filled blister that appears near the mouth and lips.
  • Affected area will often tingle or burn before the sore is visible.
  • Outbreaks may also be accompanied by mild, flu-like symptoms such as low fever, body aches, and swollen lymph nodes.
Symptoms of a cold sore
  • Firstly, fever.
  • Secondly, muscle aches.
  • Thirdly, swollen lymph nodes.


A blister is also called a vesicle by medical professionals, is a raised portion of skin that is filled with fluid.

  • Characterized by watery, clear, fluid-filled area on the skin.
  • Maybe smaller than 1 cm (vesicle) or larger than 1 cm (bulla) and occur alone or in groups.
  • Can be found anywhere on the body.
A condition that causes blister

Blisters can be caused by friction, infection or in rare cases, a skin condition.


The herpes simplex virus is a contagious virus that can be transmitted from person to person through direct contact. Children will often contract HSV-1 from early contact with an infected adult. They then carry the virus with them for the rest of their lives.

The cause’s herpes simplex


Can be contracted from general interactions such as:
  • Firstly, eating from the same utensils.
  • Secondly, sharing lip balm.
  • Thirdly, kissing.


HSV-2 is contracted through forms of sexual contact with a person who has HSV-2. The infections are spread through contact with herpes sore. In contrast, most people get HSV-1 from an infected person who is asymptomatic or does not have sores.

Risk factors for HSV-2 include
  • Multiple sexual partners.
  • Sex at a younger age.
  • Another sexually transmitted infection (STI).
  • A weakened immune system.
Signs of herpes simplex

It’s important to understand that someone may not have visible sores or symptoms and still be infected by the virus. They may also transmit the virus to others.

Symptoms associated with the herpes simplex (virus)
  • Blistering sores (in the mouth or on the genitals).
  • Pain during urination (genital herpes).
  • Itching.
  • Fever.
  • Swollen lymph nodes.
  • Headaches.
  • Tiredness.
  • Lack of appetite.
What is genital herpes?

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). This STI causes herpetic sores, which are painful blisters (fluid-filled bumps) that can break open and ooze fluid.

Two types of herpes simplex virus cause genital herpes:
  • HSV-1, which usually causes cold sores.
  • HSV-2, which usually causes genital herpes.
HSV-1 or HSV-2 can be found in people’s bodily fluids, including:
  • Firstly, saliva.
  • Secondly, semen.
  • Thirdly, vaginal secretions.


This condition is considered as a medical emergency. So urgent care may be required.

  • Burn severity is classified by both depth and size.
  • First-degree burns: minor swelling and dry, red, tender skin that turns white when pressure is applied.
  • Second-degree burns: very painful, clear, weeping blisters and skin that appears red or has variable, patchy coloration.
  • Third-degree burns: white or dark brown/tan in colour, with a leathery appearance and low or no sensitivity to touch.


Chickenpox, also called varicella, is characterized by itchy red blisters that appear all over the body. A virus causes this condition. It often affects children, and was so common it was considered a childhood rite of passage.

  • Firstly, clusters of itchy, red, fluid-filled blisters in various stages of healing all over the body.
  • Secondly, rash is accompanied by fever, body aches, sore throat, and loss of appetite.
  • Thirdly, remains contagious until all blisters have crusted over.
The causes of chickenpox:
  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox infection.
  • Most cases occur through contact with an infected person.
The virus can spread through:
  • Saliva.
  • Coughing.
  • Sneezing.
  • Contact with fluid from the blisters.


Vitiligo the cells that are responsible for your skin colour are destroyed. So these cells, called melanocytes, no longer produce skin pigment, called melanin. Once the cells no longer produce melanin, areas of your skin will lose colour or turn white.

Areas of lost pigment can develop anywhere on your body, including:
  • Sun-exposed areas like the hands, feet, arms, and face.
  • Inside the mouth or other mucus membranes.
  • Nostrils.
  • Genitals.
  • Back of the eye.
  • Within the hearing system of the ear.
Side effects can include:
  • Firstly, skin shrinkage.
  • Secondly, skin thinning.
  • Thirdly, excess hair growth.
  • Lastly, skin irritation.

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